|The Modern Middle East 2nd ed||Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798—1939|
|"Islam and Liberty", Journal of Democracy 17 1 , p||Afghani and 'Abduh: An Essay on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modern Islam, London: Frank Cass|
" Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE.
|Abduh was born in 1849, in the Nile Delta, and died at the age of 56, on 11 July 1905||18, , True, his father 'Abduh ibn Hasan Khair Allah, came from a family of Turkish origin that had settled in the village of Mahallat Nasr in the Buhairah Province at some remote time in the past|
|Islam and modernism in Egypt||New York: Oxford university Press|
Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age.