5, "One major challenge to examining initial contacts between Byzantium and the early Muslim umma arises from the controversy surrounding the traditional Islamic account
See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p 137 Netanel's work was virtually unknown beyond his native Yemen until modern times, so had little influence on later Jewish thought• These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions

جزء عم


انجازات عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه
"Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007
The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol
597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632

عمر بن الخطاب

Peter Teed 1992 , p.

كم عدد أولاد الرسول من الذكور والإناث
sources are not contemporaneous with the events they purport to relate and sometimes were written many centuries later
كم عدد أولاد الرسول من الذكور والإناث
Ideally, one would like to be able to check such accounts against contemporary evidence
Lapidus 2002 , pp 0